Breaking News: Court Rules Homeowners Behind Addicks and Barker Dams Are Entitled to Fifth Amendment Compensation -- Government Liable for Project-Induced Flood Damage

Read the Press Release here and the Judge's Order here.

Historic Win in Upstream Inverse Condemnation Trial

Posted on Wednesday, December 18th, 2019 at 9:07 pm    

Yesterday, the United States Court of Federal Claims issued an official ruling in favor of Upstream homeowners and businesses on their Fifth Amendment inverse condemnation claims. Bottom Line Up Front: We Won!!

A full copy of the Order is available here. According to the government, this the largest inverse condemnation case in the history of the United States.

Judge Lettow’s ruling relates to a May 2019 trial for thirteen “test properties” located behind the Addicks and Barker dams. The purpose of the trial was to determine whether the government is liable under the Fifth Amendment, with the issue of damages being bifurcated for a separate trial. Over 30 witnesses were called to testify, including property owners, representatives from Harris County and Fort Bend County, personnel from the Army Corps of Engineers, as well as experts in hydrology, meteorology, and real estate valuation. The trial included a site inspection during which Judge Lettow personally viewed Addicks and Barker, and the surrounding neighborhoods. As y’all know from prior newsletters, the Court appointed me as Co-Lead Counsel for the Upstream case, which included handling the bulk of trial.

During the trial, we showed how the dams held back and controlled stormwater in two massive “flood pools,” which submerged over 7,000 acres of privately-owned land located “Upstream” of the dams’ respective embankments.

 photo of neighborhoods behind Barker dam

August 30, 2017 photo of neighborhoods behind Barker dam
submerged by Impounded Floodwaters

As stated in his Order, Judge Lettow found that the government’s actions relating to the Addicks and Barker Dams and the ensuing flooding of plaintiffs’ properties constituted a taking under the Fifth Amendment. “Thus, the court finds defendant liable.”
Here are some of the major points from the Court’s Order on liability.

The Government Caused the Flooding.
Throughout the liability trial the government relentlessly argued that Harvey’s rainfall was the cause of all flooding, and even went so far as to claim that we were taking an “extreme position” by filing a lawsuit. The government also tried to blame plaintiffs for buying homes in a “flood prone” area. Judge Lettow rejected these arguments. In truth, and as recognized in Judge Lettow’s ruling, the flooding that caused the taking was, “different in kind from that which had occurred naturally and from what plaintiffs had reason to anticipate,” because it was, “not the result of natural conditions but rather of deliberate government action.” P. 42. After considering the evidence, Judge Lettow held that plaintiffs met their burden of showing their flooding was the “direct, natural, or probable result” of the government’s activity.

The Flooding Was Intentional.
During trial we introduced evidence showing that the Corps’ standard operating procedure was (and still is) to intentionally use private property to store the water held back and controlled by the dams’ embankments. As explained by Judge Lettow, intent in this context means whether the government, “intended to occupy the pertinent property without lawful authority or excuse.” For example, we unearthed internal Corps’ “Reservoir Structure” maps, which clearly depict thousands of homes inside Addicks and Barker’s reservoir area:

Addicks Reservoir Structure Map

A big part of our trial plan was to provide the Court with overwhelming evidence showing that, “the Corps knew from the outset that the land it purchased was inadequate to hold the amount of water” that could be contained in the reservoirs. To that end, on the first day of trial I introduced a May 1973 Memo that the Williams Hart team unearthed during:

Cross-Examination of Army Corps Representative Robert Thomas During 1st Day of Trial

Cross-Examination of Army Corps Representative Robert Thomas During 1st Day of Trial

The Smoking Gun -- May 1973 Internal Corps Memo</p>
<p>” /></p>
<p>The Smoking Gun — May 1973 Internal Corps Memo</p>
<p>This memo shows in plain terms that, nearly 50 years ago, the Corps created and embraced an, “operating concept of imposing flooding on private lands,” with no legal right. Judge Lettow’s Order cites to this memo repeatedly, which demonstrates that he recognized the significance of this document in deciding the Army Corps’ liability.</p>
<p>Crucially, Judge Lettow agreed that, “the government had made a calculated decision to allow for flooding these lands years before Harvey, when it designed, modified, and maintained the dams in such a way that would flood private properties during severe storms.” </p>
<p>Judge Lettow also noted another key document we dug up in discovery:  a 1974 Army Corps’ internal memo that predicted that Upstream development and how the Army Corps’ operating concept would eventually lead to the government damaging homes in the reservoirs during future storms:</p>
<div class= 1974 Internal Corps Memo Predicts Upstream Flooding and Damage

1974 Internal Corps Memo Predicts Upstream Flooding and Damage

The Government Benefited from the Taking.
Legally, we had to prove not only that the government-induced flooding was intentional (or foreseeable), but that the use of plaintiffs’ homes for Project operations conferred a benefit to the government. To this point, the trial testimony conclusively proved that use of Upstream homes and businesses located in the flood pools helped prevent $7 billion in additional damage during Harvey:

Trial Testimony of Robert Thomas Regarding Net Damages Prevented

Trial Testimony of Robert Thomas Regarding Net Damages Prevented

The Order clearly states that the government expropriated a benefit when it used Plaintiffs’ lands for flood-control purposes stating that, “in the case of Addicks and Barker, the government received a notable benefit at the expense of the upstream private property owners … the government protected downstream properties from an estimated $7 billion in losses during Harvey … while concurrently causing upstream properties to suffer from severe flooding.”

Proving that there was a massive benefit associated with the takings of the Upstream properties was really the cornerstone of the case, as the Fifth Amendment’s takings clause applies the fundamental notion that “the government cannot force some people alone to bear public burdens which, in all fairness and justice, should be borne by the public as a whole.” As Judge Lettow’s Order recognizes, this is exactly what occurred in the Upstream case.

Government’s Liability Defenses Rejected.
The government raised various defenses during the liability trial, all of which were rejected. For example, “the government’s suggestion that this flooding is not a compensable taking because it was temporary and confined to a single flood event carries no water.” Next, in considering the government’s “emergency” defense, Judge Lettow observed that, “where, as here, the government is responsible for creating the emergency, granting the government immunity from liability under the necessity doctrine would ‘stretch the doctrine too far.’”

Will the Government Appeal?
We’ve had several clients ask us if the government will appeal Judge Lettow’s ruling. Under federal law, the government can ask for an “interlocutory appeal” (i.e., an interim appeal) of the ruling. However, since we still have to complete the damages phase of the case, the government doesn’t automatically have the right to immediately file an appeal. Instead, it has to get permission before appealing.

We will be speaking with the government’s lawyers in the coming weeks, and expect that this issue will be one of the points of discussion. As always, we’ll keep you updated regarding the status of any potential interim appeal.

There is Still Time to File New Claims
We understand that several of the Upstream property-owners were uncertain if we could win this case, and deferred hiring a legal team until we received a decision on the liability trial. To be clear, even though we just won Upstream liability trial, it is not too late to bring a claim, and we’re still accepting clients that meet our criteria on a 25% contingent fee basis.

So far, we have filed individual cases on behalf of over 1,000 Upstream families and businesses. Based on our internal research, we believe fewer than 25% of the Upstream families and businesses that were submerged by the Federal Government have filed a claim. This means there are still thousands of potentially-eligible plaintiffs that may be owed Just Compensation.

Under the Court of Federal Claims’ rules, if you do nothing you get nothing. In order to receive compensation, Upstream individuals have to file a claim within the six-year statute of limitations. More information is available on our dedicated website for inverse condemnation claims against the Federal Government:

Upcoming Town Hall Meetings
We’ve deferred having town hall meetings because we were waiting for the Court’s liability decision. Now that we have it, we’ll be having town hall meetings in the coming weeks, and will be providing updates and answering questions. Kristin Hummel will be coordinating these town hall meetings, which we expect to occur in January 2020.

Lastly, I’d like to thank our clients for helping us secure a huge win in a historic case. Serving as Co-Lead Counsel is an honor and a privilege, and our entire team here at Williams Hart looks forward to progressing to the damages phase.


Armi Easterby, Partner
Williams Hart Boundas Easterby, LLP
Appointed as Upstream Co-Lead Counsel for Individual Plaintiffs

Notes from the town hall presentation!

Posted on Monday, July 1st, 2019 at 7:41 pm    

We have recently begun hosting informational events in communities near the Addicks and Barker reservoirs. It has been great to see both new and familiar faces. Several of the attendees requested a copy of the presentation given by Armi Easterby. The link below contains the presentation in pdf format. Please contact us with any questions by clicking here.

Follow this link to view the printable version of the presentation: 2019 Addicks Barker Town Hall Print Version

Part 1:

Part 2:



Upstream Reservoir Newsletter June 18, 2019

Posted on Tuesday, June 18th, 2019 at 11:41 am    

Upstream Liability Trial Complete

As you know, we had a two week trial regarding the 13 Upstream Bellwether plaintiffs, which we finished on Friday, May 17th. We anticipate receiving the Court’s decision as to whether the United States has an obligation to pay Just Compensation under the Fifth Amendment this fall.

We all believe the trial went very well for the Upstream plaintiffs. I’ve become superstitious during the last 25 years of practicing law, and accordingly would never outright predict victory in any case. I will say that we proved what we intended to prove (i.e., the Government intentionally occupied and used privately-owned Upstream property during and after Harvey to store contaminated stormwaters held back by the Addicks and Barker dams, the Government had no right to make use of the privately-owned land, the Government action of holding back contaminated stormwater on Plaintiffs’ properties substantially interfered with Plaintiffs’ property rights, etc.), and that I remain optimistic that under the specific facts relating to the Upstream plaintiffs I believe the Government has a categorical duty to pay Just Compensation to eligible plaintiffs.

We are currently working on our post-trial brief, which is due on June 26th. The Government’s brief is due on August 20th, with our reply brief due on September 6th. Judge Lettow scheduled closing arguments at 10:00 am September 13th at the National Courts Building in Washington, D.C. I am part of the team that is working on the post-trial briefing, and I will be at the closing arguments on behalf of the Upstream plaintiffs.


We Are Still Accepting New Clients

We’ve been asked by several potential new clients if it is too late to hire us to prosecute their Fifth Amendment inverse condemnation claims against the Government. To be clear, even though we just wrapped up the Upstream liability trial, it is not too late to bring a claim, and we’re still accepting clients that meet our criteria on a 25% contingent fee basis.

So far, we have filed individual cases on behalf of over 875 Upstream families and businesses. Based on our internal research, we believe fewer than 25% of the Upstream families and businesses that were submerged by the Federal Government have filed a claim. This means there are still thousands of potentially-eligible plaintiffs that may be owed Just Compensation. We believe the law in this area is absolutely clear: if you do nothing you get nothing (i.e., in order to receive any award, the claimant has to file a lawsuit within the applicable six-year statute of limitations). More information is available on our dedicated website for inverse condemnation claims against the Federal Government:


Texas Senate Bill 339 Become Law Effective September 1, 2019

Senate Bill 339 (86th Legislative Session) was signed in to law by Governor Abbott signed on June 14, 2019. The text of this new law is available here.

This new law becomes effective on September 1, 2019. This means contracts for the sale of real property entered in to on or after September 1, 2019 will need to comply with this new law (the new law does not apply retroactively to contracts entered into prior to September 1, 2019).

The new law requires additional flooding disclosures, including whether the subject property is located wholly or partly in a “Flood Pool” or “Reservoir.”

The new law defines “Flood Pool” to mean “the area adjacent to a reservoir that lies above the normal maximum operating level of the reservoir and that is subject to controlled inundation under the management of the United States Army Corps of Engineers.” It also defines “Reservoir” to mean “a water impoundment project operated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers that is intended to retain water or delay the runoff of water in a designated surface area of land.” Unfortunately, the new law does not define or provide additional information regarding what area comprises “the normal maximum operating level of the reservoir” or what area is within “a designated surface area of land.” In other words, the new law does not provide specific addresses, or even an elevation as to what properties are within in Addicks or Barker’s respective “Flood Pools” or “Reservoirs.”

Since this new law has the potential to impact our clients, I drafted and sent the attached Freedom of Information Act request to the Galveston District on June 17, 2019. I’ll share any response I receive (it generally takes them about 2-3 weeks to respond and provide documents).

According the text of the new law, this can include situations where a 100-year floodplain includes a “Flood Pool” or “Reservoir,” although it appears that the new law limits 100-year floodplains to those areas identified as such in FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps (“FIRMs”).

It is our understanding that Harris County Flood Control District and Fort Bend County Drainage District are in the process of reviewing preliminary FIRMs, and that the new FIRMs may include “Flood Pool” and/or “Reservoir” areas within the 100-year floodplain.


Summer 2019 Town Hall Meetings

We’ll be having town hall meetings in the coming weeks, and during which we will be providing updates regarding the Upstream liability trial, the new law and its potential impact on property owners in the Addicks and Barker Upstream areas, and other topics. As always, I’ll be there to provide the presentation and answer questions.

/s/ Armi Easterby

Armi Easterby, Partner


Appointed as Upstream Co-Lead Counsel for Individual Plaintiffs



Trial Date Set for May 6th!

Posted on Thursday, March 21st, 2019 at 7:10 pm    

UPDATE: We are very excited to announce that our trial date has been set for the 6th of May 2019!

For many people affected by the Upstream Addicks and Barker reservoirs floods, the nightmare which started during Hurricane Harvey is not over. So many families are still struggling to recover after the Army Corps of Engineers released thousands of gallons of water from the Addicks and Barker reservoirs into neighborhoods, many of which were not zoned as floodplains.

We are proud to be fighting for justice on behalf of so many wonderful people. We have been touched by the stories shared by many of our clients. There is still time to sign up if you or someone you know has been affected by the Addicks or Barker reservoir floods. Contact us for a free consultation. 


Photo Credit: H. Trammell

Smoking Gun

Posted on Tuesday, February 19th, 2019 at 7:14 pm    

We went down to the Corps of Engineers office to review about 100 of their boxes with the hope of locating some items that had been referenced in deposition testimony which were not in the items produced by the government. We found several upstream inundation maps that clearly demonstrate as early as the year 2000 that the Corps studied exactly which upstream homes near the Addicks and Barker reservoirs would be flooded. We have not seen any indication that these maps were ever shared with the public.

Co-Lead Counsel Armi Easterby said, “I have found several ‘smoking guns’ in my legal career, and these maps are some of the best I’ve seen. We are getting all of these maps copied this weekend, and will be using them and some depositions next week and at trial.”

The Federal Government filed a motion to stay the February trial several times and has been denied. Justice delayed is justice denied. We look forward to the upcoming trial and will be posting any updates.

Update: Due to the government shut down Judge Lettow has suspended the deadlines and case which means that once the shutdown ends the case will automatically come back online.
Armi said it best, “I’m disappointed but not discouraged — the Government may be shut down but Williams Hart isn’t. We’ll make good use of the extra time by making a strong case even stronger.”


Timeline of Harvey

Posted on Tuesday, February 19th, 2019 at 7:09 pm    

Thursday, August 17th

The National Hurricane Center issues advisories on Tropical Depression #9. By noon it is a tropical storm named Harvey.

Friday, August 18th

Harvey passed over the Windward Islands but with a max wind speed of only 40 mph. It was unclear where it would end up. No one could have known that the 19 trillion gallons of water that would soon fall over Texas.

Saturday, August 19th

Harvey weakens and is only a “tropical wave,” which is even less than a tropical depression. Weather forecasters determine that there was only a “low chance” of regeneration.

Wednesday, August 23rd

New weather prediction models showed that Harvey was not done yet. It was unclear where Harvey was going to hit, but it was clear that it was gaining strength off of the coast. Harvey goes from a tropical wave to a tropical depression and finally, by 11 PM, Harvey is a tropical storm. Governor Gregg Abbott declared a state of disaster for 30 Texas counties.

Thursday, August 24th

By morning Harvey has become a Category 1 Hurricane with 80 mph wind speeds offshore. According to the Houston Chronical, it was at this point the Army Corps forecast that the Barker and Addicks reservoirs would spill beyond government-owned land. However, they did not publish this prediction with the public.

Friday, August 25th

Harvey was a Category 2 Hurricane with 100 mph winds Friday morning. It increased in strength steadily and by 2 PM Harvey was a Category 3 Hurricane with 120 mph winds. By 5 PM that evening Harvey is a Category 4 Hurricane with 130 mph winds. The National Weather Service in Corpus Christi issued a rare Extreme Wind Warning. Harvey makes landfall as a Category 4 Hurricane on San Jose Island near Rockport.

Saturday, August 26th

Harvey makes landfall again at 1 AM on Copano Bay, by then it had downgraded to a Category 3 Hurricane. By 7 AM coastal counties had received 10-15 inches of rain. Nearly two days after the Army Corps predicted flooding, Fort Bend County was briefed by the Corps and issued the first flood warning to neighborhoods near the Barker reservoir. By then the storm was well on its way.

It should be noted that evacuation during a storm is incredibly dangerous. Casualties occur most often in attempts to flee on the roads during a storm. Because Harvey was already causing heavy rain and high winds, officials urged people to stay where they were and to weather the storm at home if at all possible.

Sunday, August 27th

Nearly 10 days since Harvey formed as a tropical depression in the Atlantic, Harvey, having weakened back into a tropical storm, moved slowly over Houston. The National Weather Service in Houston reported catastrophic and unprecedented flooding. It was at this point that Harris County issued flood warnings to neighborhoods upstream of both the Barker and Addicks reservoirs. By then many houses were already flooded. Residents fled on foot or were rescued by boats. Neighborhoods in Northwest Houston were devastated by flooding but had no idea their homes were at risk. Many of these homes had weathered several major storms prior which lead people to believe that their home would be safe from the flooding this time as well.

Heavy rain continued until Wednesday, August 30th. The national guard deployed 24,000 troops to offer emergency aid. According to the Texas Tribune and the Department of State Health Services. A total of 88 people died due to Hurricane Harvey. According to FEMA more than $1.5 billion in federal funds were paid to Texans impacted by the disaster, including assistance grants, low-interest disaster loans, and flood insurance advance payments within the first 30 days after the storm.

The recovery process continues today.

Well over a year later, many people are still without their homes. We are proud of the work we have done to help Houstonians in this ongoing fight. Firm Partner Armi Easterby was appointed to represent individual claimants as Upstream Co-Lead Counsel. We are proud to be directly involved in holding the Federal Government accountable for taking private property through the legal process known as reverse condemnation. Contact us HERE if you or someone you know has been affected by the flooding of the Addicks and Barker reservoirs.

Meet Armi Easterby

Posted on Tuesday, February 19th, 2019 at 6:42 pm    


E. Armistead Easterby, “Armi,” is a proud Texan. Armi attended the University of Texas in Austin. From there he went on to University of Houston Law Center where he was Associate Editor at the Houston Law Review before graduating cum laude in 1996. Armi joined Williams Hart law firm in 2005, and started the commercial trial section in 2008. Williams Hart commercial trial team focuses on environmental cases, intellectual property disputes, and various other commercial litigation matters. Armi Easterby has been licensed to work in the U.S. Court of Federal Claims since January 2000. This is the court is unique in that it handles claims against the federal government. Not all attorneys are licensed to practice in this specific court of law. Armi has also personally negotiated hundreds of oil spill claims and has collected in excess of $50 million for eligible claimants from previous disasters. Armi lives in Houston with his wife and 5 children. He is active in giving back to his community and passionate about the mentoring younger attorneys.

Most of Armi’s cases have centered around situations where a large company has taken advantage of a small family business. “The ‘David and Goliath’ theme is almost always present in my cases,” Armi says, “I know people like to make lawyer jokes and criticize our court system, but time and time again I’ve seen the civil justice system as the only recourse my clients have. It is gratifying to see a small company take on a Fortune 500 company in front of a jury.”

Hundreds of home and business owners have filed claims against the Army Corp of Engineers for their “controlled release” of water from the Barker and Addicks reservoirs. While many people lived in floodplains and were flooded during Harvey many of the neighborhoods upstream of the Addicks and Barker reservoirs were not in the 100 or even 500 year floodplain. These homes had no prior experience of flooding. As such many families were not required to purchase the flood insurance required for floodplain zoned homes. These families experienced up to neck-deep water without any warning. Cases in which average Americans have been harmed by a much larger entity is Armi’s specialty. His experienced legal team is working to get the victims of upstream reservoir flooding back on their feet.